Fieldwork Report: An Investigation into the Impact on Social Inclusion of High Volume Transport (HVT) Corridors and Potential Solutions to Identifying and Preventing Human Trafficking

This report presents the findings of the research project entitled “An Investigation into the Impact on Social Inclusion of High Volume Transport (HVT) Corridors and Potential Solutions to Identifying and Preventing Human Trafficking”. The research is funded by the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) through the High Volume Transport (HVT) applied research programme (2017–2023), which is managed by IMC Worldwide Ltd (IMC). The research aims to broaden understanding of the relationship between human trafficking and long-distance transport corridors and cross-border posts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a topic on which little research has been carried out to date. The research, which focuses on Uganda and Tanzania, began in July 2020 and data collection took place over the period January to August 2021.

In September 2021, the project’s Research Strategy Reference Group (RSRG), which comprises key stakeholders from government, civil society and private sectors, was invited to review the preliminary findings of the research and feed into the discussions about implications for policy and practice. Their views are reflected in and integrated throughout this report.

The research findings indicate that there is a case for investing in anti-TIP interventions whenever an HVT road is built or a formal border post established. This should be an automatic consideration as part of the mainstreaming of social inclusion into major infrastructure projects.

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Literature Review: An Investigation into the Impact on Social Inclusion of High Volume Transport Corridors and Potential Solutions to Identifying and Preventing Human Trafficking

This report presents a literature review and annotated bibliography undertaken as part of the research project: An Investigation into the Impact on Social Inclusion of High Volume Traffic (HVT) Corridors, and Potential Solutions to Identifying and Preventing Human Trafficking. The literature review followed the core principles of a systematic literature review process. The review found that very little is known about the relationship between Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and HVT corridors, other major trade routes and border crossings along these routes. It also found that the role of transport sector operators within the human trafficking process is not well understood. This validates the choice of research topic and confirms the need to strengthen the evidence base on these issues.

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The potential role of mobile phone technology in rural motorcycle and three-wheeler taxi services in Africa

Over the last two decades, motorcycle and motorised three-wheeler taxis have become important means of transport in many sub-Saharan African countries, including in rural areas. However, the emerging role of mobile phone technology in improving mobility in rural areas is currently under-explored in the literature.

This paper presents the findings of a small-scale research study that was undertaken into the use of mobile phone technology in the context of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxi use, and its potential to improve rural access. Informed by a literature review, the research focuses on four countries: Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with riders of motorcycle and motorised three wheeler taxis and the developers of mobile phone-enabled transport technologies.

Mobile technology linked to the utilisation of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis is increasing, but ‘ride hailing’ applications (apps) are likely to be limited to urban areas for the foreseeable future due to various disincentives to their use in rural areas. The study identifies several promising innovations that combine the use of motorcycles and three-wheelers with mobile technology to increase rural people’s access to essential services and opportunities. These have the potential to be scaled up or expanded to other countries.

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Surveys for the ReCAP project: Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks.

This tool can be used to better understand the benefits and disbenefits of motorcycles taxis and three-wheelers in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa.  The tool has five parts which target different groups including motorcycle and three-wheeler riders, passengers, taxi owners and owners of freight, as well as members of the community who do not use these modes of transport. This tool was designed to gather data to inform research on two- and three-wheeler taxi use and training, to influence the development of policy and legislation. The surveys are available in English and French.

This tool was initially designed for and used during the project ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’ in DRC, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda between December 2017 and August 2019. The project was funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DfID) as part of the Research for Community Access Partnership (ReCAP), and was carried out by a consortium which included Transaid, Amend and TRL.

Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport. Final Country Report: Tanzania

This Tanzania Country Report presents the Tanzania-specific findings of the project ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’.

This project was carried out in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda between September 2017 and January 2019. The study has revealed that motorcycle taxis are very important for rural travel, and are very popular among rural communities. As well as the many benefits that motorcycle taxis provide, riders and passengers also suffer from crashes, crime, abuse and health issues, and they create safety risks for other road users. The results of the study can be used by the Tanzanian government and others to better understand the issues related to motorcycle taxis in rural areas and to develop policy and practice to maximise their benefits and minimise the disbenefits.

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Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport – Final Report

Throughout 2018, a project entitled ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’ has been carried out in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The project was funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DfID) as part of the Research for Community Access Partnership (ReCAP), and was carried out by a consortium of Transaid, Amend and TRL.

The use of motorcycles has increased greatly in Africa in recent years and they are often used as taxis; with riders charging a fare to carry passengers or goods. In rural areas, motorcycle taxis play a crucial role in connecting people to services and farms to markets, and in many countries motorcycles are the most commonly found vehicle on rural roads.

Over 1,140 people in 32 settlements across the four countries took part in a survey looking at the benefits and disbenefits of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis in rural areas. Riders, owners, passengers and other users, as well as people who do not use such vehicles, answered questions on topics including economics and finance, access and mobility, injuries, health issues, crime and personal security, access to services and protective equipment, and overall opinions.

The findings showed that motorcycle taxis are very important to rural communities: in many situations they are either the only existing, or the only affordable, mode of transport. In the survey locations, motorcycle taxis accounted for an average of 83% of all motorised trips, being used for business activities as well as personal transport. They are particularly important for emergency transport. For riders they are an important source of income.

As well as the many benefits of motorcycle taxis, the results of the survey also shed light on a number of disbenefits. Forty-one percent of riders reported that while riding a motorcycle taxi in a rural area they had suffered an injury that resulted in them either losing money or requiring medical attention, or affecting their family life. Incidents that caused injuries tended to be single vehicle crashes or falls that occurred when the rider was alone, and were caused by rider error. The vast majority of riders had never received training and had no driving licence. Some riders and passengers were worried about their personal security.  Riders also reported health issues that they attribute to riding a motorcycle, including respiratory problems, eye infection, stiffness and numbness.

But while motorcycle taxi riders and passengers face the risk of injury, personal security threats and health problems, this does not stop people from using motorcycle taxis – either as a means of earning money, or as a mode of transport.

Motorised three-wheeler taxis were also included in the study, but they were found to be very uncommon in the surveyed areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. In Ghana, motorised three-wheeler taxis were found to be used for both freight and passenger transport, although they are less common than motorcycle taxis.

The project has identified potential opportunities for improving road safety and personal safety, and for addressing health issues. These opportunities include effective training, licensing and enforcement of laws. Motorcycle taxi associations have the potential to play an important role in realising many of these opportunities.

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A Manual for Motorcycle and Three-Wheeler Taxi Associations: Guidance on Setting-Up an Association and the Association’s Responsibilities to its Members

The findings, on which this manual is based, stem from the 2018 DfID-funded research carried out in Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya on the use of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis in rural contexts. A key recommendation, among others, is that motorcycle and three-wheeler taxi riders should belong to a registered association.

This Tanzania-focused manual is intended to offer guidance and advice to motorcycle and three-wheeler associations as well as their members, in an effort to support and facilitate riders to access training, encourage safer riding, and ensure overall efficiency of operations from set up and structure, to customer care and vehicle maintenance.

To read this manual, please click here.

Instructor’s Manual for the Competency based Curriculum for Training Motorcycle and Tricycle Riders with emphasis on Motorcycle Taxi (Boda Boda) Riders

Motorcycle (boda boda) and motor tricycle (bajaji) taxis are an increasingly utilised form of commercial transport in both urban and rural Africa and beyond. With this new rise of commercial vehicles on the road, issues of safety and riders’ competency have been of real concern; calling for stricter regulation and standards of training. In 2015 through funding from the Africa Community Access Partnership (AfCAP), the Tanzanian Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority (SUMATRA) worked with Transaid to develop a competence based curriculum for motorcycle taxis and tricycles to address these needs.

An Instructor’s Manual, again through AfCAP funding, has recently been developed by Transaid and endorsed by SUMATRA, complementing the existing competence based curriculum. The combination of the curriculum and manual is now expected to improve and standardise the quality of training in Tanzania and enable a large number of training schools to offer effective training to riders. This is particularly relevant now, given the growing dependency on these means of transportation. This Instructor’s Manual is meant to support the work of competence based training institutions, as well as to promote comprehensive good practice for this emerging sub-sector.

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Technical Brief: Training of Rural Motorcycle and Three-Wheeler Taxi Riders in Sub-Saharan Africa

This technical brief is focused on the state of professional training available to motorcycle and three-wheeler taxi riders in sub-Saharan Africa. The foundations for this brief are laid upon the findings of the 2018 ReCAP-funded research on the use of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis in Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Major findings highlight inconsistencies in the provision of professional training, its quality, availability and affordability.

Understanding how to improve the availability and quality of professional rider training, through the provision of standardised and quality assured curricula and training manuals is essential. These findings couldn’t have come at a better time, given the rise of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis in rural contexts across sub-Saharan Africa and their increase use by rural people to access markets, health services and livelihoods, not to mention their income generating potential for riders.

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Enhancing the understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport – Progress Report

This Progress Report details progress during the first seven months of the project ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’, which included an inception report and a literature review.

ReCAP is a six-year programme of applied research and knowledge dissemination funded by a grant from the UK Government through the DfID. The overall aim is to promote safe and sustainable rural access in Africa and Asia through research and knowledge sharing between participating countries and the wider community.

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Enhancing the understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport- Literature Review

The purpose of this literature review was to generate contextual information to inform the development of research strategies in the project’s four focal countries: Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.  The literature review draws on existing academic and grey literature. It maps the growth in use of motorcycles and motorised three-wheelers in sub-Saharan Africa and examines the benefits and disbenefits of their use as a means of public transport, with a particular emphasis on their use in rural areas. It describes the implications of the existing lack of regulatory frameworks covering motorcycles and three-wheelers, as well as gender, mobility and road safety issues.

ReCAP is a six-year programme of applied research and knowledge dissemination funded by a grant from the UK Government through the DfID. The overall aim is to promote safe and sustainable rural access in Africa and Asia through research and knowledge sharing between participating countries and the wider community.

To read the literature review, please click below.

 

Practical Driving Assessment (Student) & (Trainer)

The following tools are designed to be used for the monitoring and evaluation of driver training. They can be used as pre and post driver training assessments to demonstrate improvements in knowledge as a result of undergoing training.

 

The assessments include a list of driving elements each of which are assessed and should be given a rating of either ‘Good’, ‘Satisfactory’ or ‘Unsatisfactory’. The assessment matrix provides a guide to the assessor making it easier for them to identify the correct rating. The assessment also includes an area for feedback and recommendations. Recommendations should focus on how the driver (student or trainer) can improve their performance.