Surveys for the ReCAP project: Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks.

This tool can be used to better understand the benefits and disbenefits of motorcycles taxis and three-wheelers in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa.  The tool has five parts which target different groups including motorcycle and three-wheeler riders, passengers, taxi owners and owners of freight, as well as members of the community who do not use these modes of transport. This tool was designed to gather data to inform research on two- and three-wheeler taxi use and training, to influence the development of policy and legislation. The surveys are available in English and French.

This tool was initially designed for and used during the project ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’ in DRC, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda between December 2017 and August 2019. The project was funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DfID) as part of the Research for Community Access Partnership (ReCAP), and was carried out by a consortium which included Transaid, Amend and TRL.

Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport. Final Country Report: Ghana

This Ghana Country Report presents the Ghana-specific findings of the project ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’.

This project was carried out in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda between September 2017 and January 2019. The study has revealed that, despite the use of motorcycles and three-wheelers as taxis being illegal, they are very important for rural travel, and are popular among rural communities. The results of the study can be used by the Ghanaian government and others to better understand the issues related to motorcycle taxis in rural areas and to develop policy and practice to maximise their benefits and minimise the disbenefits.

Click below to read the full report.

Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport – Final Report

Throughout 2018, a project entitled ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’ has been carried out in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The project was funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DfID) as part of the Research for Community Access Partnership (ReCAP), and was carried out by a consortium of Transaid, Amend and TRL.

The use of motorcycles has increased greatly in Africa in recent years and they are often used as taxis; with riders charging a fare to carry passengers or goods. In rural areas, motorcycle taxis play a crucial role in connecting people to services and farms to markets, and in many countries motorcycles are the most commonly found vehicle on rural roads.

Over 1,140 people in 32 settlements across the four countries took part in a survey looking at the benefits and disbenefits of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis in rural areas. Riders, owners, passengers and other users, as well as people who do not use such vehicles, answered questions on topics including economics and finance, access and mobility, injuries, health issues, crime and personal security, access to services and protective equipment, and overall opinions.

The findings showed that motorcycle taxis are very important to rural communities: in many situations they are either the only existing, or the only affordable, mode of transport. In the survey locations, motorcycle taxis accounted for an average of 83% of all motorised trips, being used for business activities as well as personal transport. They are particularly important for emergency transport. For riders they are an important source of income.

As well as the many benefits of motorcycle taxis, the results of the survey also shed light on a number of disbenefits. Forty-one percent of riders reported that while riding a motorcycle taxi in a rural area they had suffered an injury that resulted in them either losing money or requiring medical attention, or affecting their family life. Incidents that caused injuries tended to be single vehicle crashes or falls that occurred when the rider was alone, and were caused by rider error. The vast majority of riders had never received training and had no driving licence. Some riders and passengers were worried about their personal security.  Riders also reported health issues that they attribute to riding a motorcycle, including respiratory problems, eye infection, stiffness and numbness.

But while motorcycle taxi riders and passengers face the risk of injury, personal security threats and health problems, this does not stop people from using motorcycle taxis – either as a means of earning money, or as a mode of transport.

Motorised three-wheeler taxis were also included in the study, but they were found to be very uncommon in the surveyed areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. In Ghana, motorised three-wheeler taxis were found to be used for both freight and passenger transport, although they are less common than motorcycle taxis.

The project has identified potential opportunities for improving road safety and personal safety, and for addressing health issues. These opportunities include effective training, licensing and enforcement of laws. Motorcycle taxi associations have the potential to play an important role in realising many of these opportunities.

Click below to read the full final report.

Technical Brief: Training of Rural Motorcycle and Three-Wheeler Taxi Riders in Sub-Saharan Africa

This technical brief is focused on the state of professional training available to motorcycle and three-wheeler taxi riders in sub-Saharan Africa. The foundations for this brief are laid upon the findings of the 2018 ReCAP-funded research on the use of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis in Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Major findings highlight inconsistencies in the provision of professional training, its quality, availability and affordability.

Understanding how to improve the availability and quality of professional rider training, through the provision of standardised and quality assured curricula and training manuals is essential. These findings couldn’t have come at a better time, given the rise of motorcycle and three-wheeler taxis in rural contexts across sub-Saharan Africa and their increase use by rural people to access markets, health services and livelihoods, not to mention their income generating potential for riders.

To read this brief, please click below.

Enhancing the understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport – Progress Report

This Progress Report details progress during the first seven months of the project ‘Enhancing understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport and the implications for appropriate training and regulatory frameworks’, which included an inception report and a literature review.

ReCAP is a six-year programme of applied research and knowledge dissemination funded by a grant from the UK Government through the DfID. The overall aim is to promote safe and sustainable rural access in Africa and Asia through research and knowledge sharing between participating countries and the wider community.

To read this report, please  click below.

 

Enhancing the understanding on safe motorcycle and three-wheeler use for rural transport- Literature Review

The purpose of this literature review was to generate contextual information to inform the development of research strategies in the project’s four focal countries: Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.  The literature review draws on existing academic and grey literature. It maps the growth in use of motorcycles and motorised three-wheelers in sub-Saharan Africa and examines the benefits and disbenefits of their use as a means of public transport, with a particular emphasis on their use in rural areas. It describes the implications of the existing lack of regulatory frameworks covering motorcycles and three-wheelers, as well as gender, mobility and road safety issues.

ReCAP is a six-year programme of applied research and knowledge dissemination funded by a grant from the UK Government through the DfID. The overall aim is to promote safe and sustainable rural access in Africa and Asia through research and knowledge sharing between participating countries and the wider community.

To read the literature review, please click below.

 

Transport Management System Training for the Ghana Health Service

This final report summarises the preparation activities, the content of the training, and the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from a 4 day training workshop held in Accra, Ghana in May 2014. Funded by UKaid through the Africa Community Access Programme, the training workshop was organised by Transaid and the Ghana Health Service (GHS) and brought together GHS Transport Managers representing all of Ghana’s 10 regions as well as participants from wider organisations with a role in transport management. This workshop provided participants with a unique opportunity to share and exchange varied experiences and improve on existing transport management practices. The training was designed according to the stated priorities given by the GHS with a view to building capacity and making maximum use of the full 4 days’ worth of training. The training revealed a growing appetite amongst Transport Managers for training opportunities with participants showing a particular desire to cascade the knowledge that they learnt during the training workshop to their colleagues and respective staff teams. The workshop proposed the implementation of a number of systems to improve the effectiveness of transport management, and linked to this, a number of recommendations have emerged and are noted in this report.

Linking Rural Communities with Health Services

Linking Rural Communities with Health Services: Assessing the Effectiveness of the Ambulance Services in Meeting the Needs of Rural Communities in West Africa.

It is increasingly accepted in our understanding of maternal healthcare in Africa that poor physical access is reducing the effectiveness of measures to reduce maternal mortality. This project developed an evaluation framework that combined transport measures with health condition assessment methods of the Vital Signs approach and the Glasgow Coma Score to assess differences in patient condition when being referred from local health centres to higher-level referral facilities. Surveys were undertaken of 704 women from 40 communities across Katsina State, Northern Nigeria. It was found that whilst the majority took 1-2 hours between being referred and arriving at the referral facility many took up to 7 hours. Whilst using the Glasgow Coma Score, the study found no statistical relationship between health condition and how a patient arrived at the referral facility or how long it took to arrive. However, using the Vital Signs approach, statistical associations were found between a number of vital signs and how women arrived at the referral facility and how long it took to be referred. As a result, improvements to how women travel to a referral facility and the time referral takes can have positive impacts on the severity of patients managed by referral facilities. Efforts by a range of countries across West Africa to establish widespread ambulance provision may be effective in contributing to reducing maternal mortality. This study shows they may have a positive impact on the skills, resources and equipment emergency obstetric care facilities needed to reduce maternal mortality.

2004 – “Transport and Trade for Market Women in Accra”

This technical case study details the background, methodology and conclusions of a project that identified ways that the women’s cooperatives in Accra, Ghana, could be provided with the capacity and skills to set up and manage their own independent transport system.